About The Horolgical Foundation.


Vetting test Help.

Vetting criteria.

  Legends  with imperfections list.


= Shall be mentioned on object label,
NA = Not Authentic.
PR = NA, but Properly Reconstructed.
(. = see legenda.
0 = Acceptable.
back to list)

LV Legends  with vetting results.

  Apply 'General' in empty fields (cells).
# = >9 = unacceptable.
X = imperfection issue does not appy to this category.
0 = acceptable
= negative value (read more)
  An object does not pass the test, if the total* of its imperfection penalties becomes more than 9. (>9)

* including the exhibition grade value.
back to results)



      Back to: 'Vetting' test

For an object to pass the test, its 'perfection grade' shall be higher than 90%. Hence the amount of acceptable imperfections shall not be more than 9 percentage points, also called imperfection or penalty points.

Acceptable imperfections are often due to normal wear and tear, unintentional damage or misuse. 

For perfection grades to be higher than 90% is a rather demanding standard. The 'vetnorm working party' would like to stress that objects with perfection grades less than 90% could still be of great interest, especially when restorations, if any, are carefully executed.

These vetting test pages aims to facilitate objective and consistent vetting procedures and criteria. However, click   here   to view the terms of use.

It is stressed that establishing an object's imperfection is the sole responsibility of the test observers*, it shall be done with great care and shall be endorsed by qualified experts. In case of a possible dispute, it is suggested to appoint an arbiter expert beforehand.

* appointed by the party (parties) involved.


    About vetting criteria  level
The criteria database, as applied to perform a vetting test, is maintained by a working party of art historians and horological experts of which several have a long standing experience as vetting committee members at prestigious Art & Antiques fairs. To some extent, the database could be considered as a summary of accumulated vetting decissions. Due to ongoing re-evaluation, the current criteria are not necessarily the same as those used in the past. The working party will gladly consider any serious contributions from users and fellow experts.

The criteria are to be considered as guidelines only, and do not have any official or legal status. However, parties could mutually agree to apply a vetting test as part of a deal.
The weighting of an imperfection is subject to two variables, i.e. Level and Category. Hence the vetting results for two different objects, having similar imperfections, may vary substantially due to different level and or category allocation.

Important notice:

This project is about weighing imperfections not establishing imperfections.

    Level  (exhibition grade)
Level has to do with the purpose of a vetting test and weighs the status (degree of acceptability) of an object category when applied to a certain level.

Two levels are currently selectable:
- Exhibition grade II or Certification. (strict)
- Exhibition grade I. (strict, some categories banned)

If, for instance, the vetting-test applies to a 'local Antiques show' (grade II) the vetting will be less strict (more lenient) than when it applies to a prestigious International 'Fine Art & Antiques Fair' (grade I).

Level correction points

The degree of 'acceptability' is expressed by 'level' correction points, (exhibition grade points). These points are to be added to the total of the imperfection penalty points.

* Very early or rare objects (gothic, renaissance) could be treated with more leniency. (negative grade points are to reduce the total of the penalty points)
* A late 19th century 'Comtoise clock' may not qualify for exhibition at a prestigious International 'Fine Art & Antiques Fair'. (positive grade points or, if to be banned, an # )

    Category category
Weighing similar imperfections may vary with the object-category to which it applies. 

For instance:
- If the (detent) escapement of a fine and rare 18th century marine chronometer is converted to (replaced by) a platform anchor escapement, it has a much greater (fatal) impact on the clock's authenticity than a similar conversion applying to a late 19th century, mass produced, French mantel clock. 
- If restoration or reconstruction of a leg applies to a 'one' leg table, it has a much greater impact on the table's authenticity than when it applies to an 'eight' legs table.

Back to: 'Imperfections Index' <<<<

About The Horolgical Foundation. Terms of use agreement and important legal information.

By using our information and services, you are indicating your agreement with the following terms and conditions. 


Neither the Horological Foundation nor its data providers shall have any liability, contingent or otherwise, for the truthfulness, accuracy, timeliness, completeness, correct sequencing of any and all provided information and/or services, or for any decision made or action taken by in reliance upon any and all provided information and/or services.

All information and services are provided "as is". There is no warranty of merchantability, no warranty of fitness for a particular use, and no other warranty of any kind, express or implied, regarding the information or any aspect of the services (including, but not limited to, information access). You recognize that the accuracy of the information should be checked before you rely on it.

In no event will the Horological Foundation or its data providers be liable to you, your customers, or any other party for any incidental, consequential, special or indirect damages (including but not limited to lost profits, trading losses, or damages that result from inconvenience, delay or loss of the use of the services), or claims arising in tort (including negligence), even if the Horological Foundation or its data providers have been advised of or are otherwise aware of the possibility of any of the foregoing.

In case of dispute, Dutch law will prevail.          (Back)